Bio fuels are an important sustainable energy carrier which could contribute significantly to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by the transport sector. Bio fuels represent the largest near-term possibility of decreasing CO2 emissions from the transportation sector. Bio fuels have the advantage of being easily integrated into the established infrastructure for petroleum fuels thereby facilitating introduction. Today’s most common bio fuels, ethanol and biodiesel are possible to blend to current fuels and utilize in existing vehicles.
More and more countries worldwide are developing bio fuel programs and implementing mandates for bio fuel usage. The European Union has a target of replacing 10 % of transportation fuels with renewable fuels in 2020 and the United States has targets of producing and using 36 billion gallons of ethanol by 2022.